A cut-off bunch is a material residue in the center of the front surface of the machined part resulting from the turning process. DIN 6785 is valid if not otherwise indicated on the drawing. The shape of the bunch is not determined, it has to fit the enveloping space. Maximum dimensions of a bunch according to DIN 6785:
Abbreviation for computer aided design. Professional CAD applications are complexe expert systems for the draft and construction of technical solutions. Virtual components can be displayed three-dimensionally.
Computer Aided Quality Management (CAQ) implies the IT supported determination of the quality policy and its goals as well as the computer aided quality assurance in the company and is an element of the quality management. It accompanies the complete production process including all operational and service areas. This IT support related to the quality assurance is defined as Computer Aided Quality Assurance. CAQ sytems analyse, record and file quality relevant data of production processes. CAQ encompasses computer aided measures for planning and execution of the quality assurance.
Capabilities of CAQ are among others:
- Incoming goods inspection and supplier assessment
- Pre-production inspection (machine capability study, measuring system analysis (MSA) )
- Inspection during production (often as statistical process control)
- Outgoing goods inspection
- Audit system (planning and implementation of audits as well as tracking of the detected defects)
- Impact analysis (FMEA)
- Document management (traceability of document changes) DMS
- Procedure management (traceability of taken measures)
- Complaint management (traceable handling with complaints by use of the so-called 8D procedure; c.v. 8D report)
- Gauge management (proof of measuring and test equipment capability, calibration and usage history)
- Initial sample inspection (proof of potential capability to produce the required quality)
Quality planning (APQP)
Machine capacity index (cmk)
In order to determine the machine capacity a sample of wokpieces (min. 50 pcs) previously defined according to statistical criteria will be produced under specified conditions and the dimensions which are critical regarding the supposed function of the item will be measured. The 5M factors man power, material, measuring method, machine temperature and method of production are not allowed to be changed at all or only slightly.
- Man power: the same person has to operate the machine during the study
- Material: the same material of the same production batch has to be used
- Measuring method: it will be measured with the same device during the whole period of the study
- Machine temperature: The temperature of the machine must not vary, i.e. this systems of the machine are at operating temperature
- Method of production: The same production method will be applied, f.ex. turning or grinding
In practice, the term machine capacity led to problems because too many influences such as measuring devices, surrounding, staff etc. interact so that it is recommended to determine the process capability by using the key figures Cp and CpK and the stability of the process.
Process capability index
In the production technology the cpk figure is referred to as a statiscal measure to evaluate a long-term process. The cpk is formed from the average value, the related standard deviation and the lower and upper specification limit (OSG, USG). The higher this value, the higher the certainty that the complete production is within the specifications.
Enterprise Content Management is used for the electronical filing and managing of business documents and information. All functionalities for efficient administration, fast application and safe supervision of information are made available throughout their whole life cycle. An ECM is the central knowledge platform where all information (paper-based and digital)
converge and can be retrieved immediately by the employees if required.
The term Electronic Data Interchange describes as comprehensive term of the electronic data processing the data exchange by usage of electronic transfer procedures. As sender, forwarder and recipient of the sent messages the application systems of the enlisted companies/ organisations are directly involved.
EN ISO 9001
The international standard Norm EN ISO 9001 determines the minimum requirements for a quality management system. This standards series was implemented in 1987 and has been updated five times since then. The latest is edition is dd. November 2015.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) describes the entrepreneurial task of planning and controlling resources such as capital, human ressources, operating resources, materials, information and communication technology and IT systems in a timely manner according to the company’s purpose. The aim is to ensure an efficient value-added process and a steady optimized management of the business and operational processes. A main function of ERP in producing companies is the planning of material requirements which has to ensure that all materials necessary for the manufacturing of the products and components are made available at the right place, in time and in correct quantity. Nowadays, this task can only be fulfilled by the help of IT systems based on modern information and communication technology. An ERP system is a complexe application software or various interacting IT systems Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) describes the entrepreneurial task of planning company. Mostly, complexe ERP systems are divided into subsystems (application modules) which can be combined with eachother according to the company’s requirement.
FMEA, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, is an analytical method of the reliabilty engineering. Potential product defects are evaluated by key figures in view of their importance for the customer, their probability of occurence and detection.
In the quality and safety management the FMEA is used preventively for the avoidance of errors and in order to increase the technical reliability. FMEA is particularly applied in the design and development stage of new products and processes. This method is widely spread in the automotive industry as well as in the aerospace industry but also other branches require
a properly implemented FMEA.
IATF means International Automotive Task Force. It is a purpose specific work group which consists of representatives of Northern American and European car manufactures and automobile federations who focus on the harmonization of the standards in order to improve the product quality for customers of the automotive industry. Full members are following car manufacturers:
BMW, Chrysler, Daimler, Fiat, Ford, General Motors, Groupe PSA, Renault and VW.
IATF 16949 is the successor of ISO/TS 16949. It was launched in October 2016. IATF 16949 itends to improve the system and product quality in companies of the automotive sector. The continuing improvement process aims on increasing the customer satisfaction, detecting errors and risks in the production process and supply chain, eliminating the causes and checking the implemented correction and prevention measures on their effectiveness.
IMDS is the material data system of the automotive industry. It is a common development of Audi, BMW, Daimler, HPE, Ford, Opel, Porsch, VW and Volvo. Further car manufacturers meanwhile also joined in whereby IMDS could develop to be international standard and is used by almost all globally acting OEMs. In addition to that, other manufacturers are negotiating about their participation in IMDS. All materials which are used for the fabrication of cars are collected, maintained, analysed and filed in the IMDS. The application of IMDS enables to fulfil the obligations of the car manufacturers and their suppliers defined by national and international standards, laws and regulations.
A company determines an operational environmental policy, aims and programmes and establishes a corresponding management system which supports to achieve the goals.
The standard ISO/TS 16949 was established in 1999 by the consolidation of the German standard VDA 6.1 and the American standard QS9000. It combines the requirements of quality management systems of the automotive industry and was commonly developed by the IATF members and launched together with ISO as technical specification (TS) based on the EN ISO 9001 and since then adapted twice to the renewals of EN ISO 9001.
ISO/TS 16949 was replaced by the new standard IATF 16949 in 2018.
Machine Capacity is a term from the production technology which describes the stability and ability of reproduction of a production step on an operating machine. It enables to determine the potential rate of rejection and rework when operating this machine. The machine capacity can be calculated in the quality assurance with means of a CAQ system. The machine capacity is closely related to the process ability indices Cp and CpK of a production process.
The Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) is a method from the QS 9000 (meanwhile replacing ISO/TS 16949) with which series parts are sampled. This procedures originates from the automotive industry and has been implemented succesfully since years. It is especially about the quality of the supplied parts, i.e. that the parts made from the serial tools respectively from the serial processes have to in conformance to the drawings. Besides the checking of the supplied parts the sampling (part submission warrant PSW) is a main element of the sampling procedure. PSW combines and records all relevant information regarding requirements and tests.
QS 9000 was a quality standard developed in 1994 by the three big American car manufacturers General Motors, Chrysler and Ford. In 2006 the standard was replaced by ISO/TS 16949.
RoHS is the abbreviation of Restriction of Hazardous Substances.
The EC regulation 2011/65/EU aims on the restriction of the usage of certain hazardous substances in electonical devices. It regulates the usage and the putting into circulation of hazardous substances in electronical devices and components.
Total Quality Management, also extensive quality management, describes the consistent and ongoing supervision action which registers, records, sights, organises and controls all areas of an organisation (companies, institutions, etc.) in order to implemented quality as system goal and guarantee it permanently. TQM is depending on the full support of all employees in order to be sucessful.
The Association of the German Automotive Industry (VDA) with its head office in Berlin is an unincorparated association and the common interest group of the German car manufacturers and suppliers. The association was founded in 1901 as association of German motor vehicle industrials (VDMI) and then renamed to “Reich Association of the Automotive Industry” (RDA) in 1923. Since 1946 it is called VDA.
Hans Peter Schulte GmbH
Unterm Knebel 3a
D-58840 Plettenberg / Oesterau
Hans Peter Schulte GmbH
Unterm Knebel 3a
D-58840 Plettenberg / Oesterau